Participants and Abstracts

Horea Avram
PhD candidate, Art History and Communication Studies, McGill University
Bodies in the Dark: The Absent Spectator in Recent Video Artistic Practice

The paper discusses how recent video art exhibition practice has affected not only the spectatorship and the viewer’s bodily participation, but also the production of knowledge about art. I analyze this phenomenon within the framework of what I call the ‘boring turn’ in video art. The phenomenological state of boredom in video art practice and spectatorship, I claim, is related to three main factors: the content (the narrative is most often a flat and disengaged discourse), visual expression (images are predictable and unimaginative and are rendered in the idioms of the most banal TV reportages, soap-operas and B series cinema), and – my main focus here – spatial presentation (one-sense, frontal projection within the white-cube-turned-black-box gallery space).

My argument is that in front of this self-sufficient spectacle on the screen, the viewer is simply ignored. He/she is simply transformed from a potentially involved participant into an autonomous and passive onlooker in the dark. These works address apparently everyone with no preoccupation for the destiny of the message: there is no anticipation of a possible interaction with specific viewers in a specific context – and in part this is why we cannot speak in these cases about any aesthetic provocation, any social interaction or political dialogue.

This presentational format not only accepts but reinforces the physical and ideological constraints of the traditional gallery space, this time transforming it into “a movie theatre that is characterized by the rigidity of its interface” (Manovich). As a consequence, the tensions existing between, on one hand, proximity and materiality (represented by the bodies and the objects present in the white cube), and, on the other, the distanced, dematerialized image (of the video projection in the black box), seem, not only unsolved, but even more deepened by the viewing experience proposed by the boring turn videos. In the course of the paper I will consider works by Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Fiona Tan, Isaac Julien, Phil Collins, and Anri Sala.

Sara Church-Benish
MA student, Department of Art History, University of St. Thomas, Minnesota
Wu Qinghua’s Body in The Red Detachment of Women: A ‘Model’ Model?

In 1970, the Chinese ballet The Red Detachment of Women (1964) was filmed for a nation-wide television audience, adding to the wide variety of media used to disseminate the yangbanxi, or ‘model performances,’ of the Cultural Revolution. The ballet, based on a 1961 film directed by Xie Jin, was said to be inspired by true stories of an all-female Communist militia fighting in the Chinese Civil War. The narrative of the cinematic version was greatly altered through its translation into a Revolutionary ballet: any hints of subjectivity, romance, or sexuality were to be sacrificed towards the goal of creating an objectively ideological model for the masses. Hence, heroine Wu Qinghua was altered through choreographing, costuming, and politicizing of her body, meant to be understood as a cultural signifier of Revolutionary purity – a ‘model.’ However, an acutely gendered and sexualized reading of the effects of such alterations belies the supposed purity of the motives behind the model ballet.        

Through examining the historical origins of yangbanxi, applying the Chinese Socialist theory of “the three prominences” towards an analysis of the ballet, and utilizing Mao Zedong’s guidelines on art criticism as laid out in his “Talks at the Yan’an Conference,” my paper seeks to balance overly politicized readings of Wu Qinghua’s ‘model’ role. A scholarly tendency to analyze the character as a desexualized signifier of Revolution plays lip service to the Maoist agenda in overlooking the audiences’ capacity for subjective, sexual, gender-specific interpretations of the ballet. How did the audience – likewise how do we – overcome the deception intended to be modeled by the ideological heroine? I contend that ideological content and sexual form are not mutually exclusive categories; but neither are they unified when a fuller consideration of audience reception and scholarly self-deception is allowed for.  

Nelly César
MFA student, Department of Art History, Visual Art & Theory, University of British Columbia
I am a Stray Dog: Feminism on All Fours

The first time I took a stroll on all fours was in 2009 in the flamboyant downtown of Mexico's Puebla City, which is jam packed with barely preserved historical/colonial remnants. I got off the bus and knelt down, then I put my hands on the pavement and proceeded to crawl around the immense cathedral. I went through the city as a creeper for a couple of hours. I was caught in affective fascination; the ecstasy came from the impossibility of making sense of anything and losing control of borders. Intensities detonated randomly in/around my body through their stares, the pointing, their awkward looks, the comments, their laughter. I laughed more than once. I was totally numb and anxious. But I can remember the friction between my knees and hands and the warm pavement accompanied by their effort to transport the rest of my body.

Born in Mexico City and identified as mujer my positioning has been doomed to oppression through a very precise system of gender and institutional expectations. As a feminist artist I wondered how could I reconcile with my socio-cultural context without battering and how could I develop an identity process I felt comfortable with. The stray dog is a common character in third world countries and it became my obsession to the point that I decided to embody it. This presentation is about my Quadruped series of experiences where I spent twenty-four hours imitating a she dog, took naps with stray dogs beneath cars, and crawled around the city. Connecting these actions with Rosi Braidotti's Nomadic Subjectivities and applying her claim for mobile and connection/contact-based subjectivity, I used the rhetoric of terrestrial locomotion to develop a scale that considers subjects based on their spatio-temporal capacities. In this paper Braidotti's work is read through a stray dog perspective, putting feminism on all fours.

Maria A. Coates
MA student, Art History and Curatorial Studies, York University, Toronto
Blind Spots and the Sites/Sights of Performance: Regina José Galindo

Performance artist Regina José Galindo (b. 1974, Guatemala) uses her own body as the material protagonist of her work. The video-performance Punto Ciego (Blind Spot), 2010, created for the XVII Bienal de Arte Paiz in Guatemala City, situates her nude female body, standing immobile and statuesque on a plinth inside a closed gallery space. Galindo then invites a blind group of people to experience what is on display in the gallery: herself. Simultaneously, the video recording of this event documents the performance and becomes the chosen medium of display. The female body comes into presence through the play between two different spectators – those who see and those who touch – between appearance and disappearance.

In his book The Emancipated Spectator, Jacques Rancière places the question of the spectator at the heart of the interaction between art and politics. Emancipation, says Rancière, begins when a challenge to the relations between viewing and acting as factors that structure a framework of domination can be sustained. In Galindo's Blind Spot, the female body exists as a seductive object to spectators through either sight or touch. As elements of cognition, they remain embedded in a framework of domination generated by a patriarchal ideological system, further complicated by the increased currency of the female body in the market. This paper examines the extent to which Galindo’s work constitutes a process of unveiling of the female body from the systemic operations of violence, power, and hegemony embodied within it. As a Latin American scholar, I am interested in the way Galindo centres gender and the female body as the site for the operations of violence particular to Central America and, specifically, Guatemala. I argue that her practice constitutes a sustained challenge to the structures of spectatorship by visualizing, complicitly, the system upon which the female body is experienced, imaged, and produced, as a method of emancipation and resistance.

Katherine Dennis
MFA student, Criticism and Curatorial Practices, OCAD University, Toronto
Collaboration: Repositioning Curating as Process-based Research

This presentation will focus on the collaborative, embodied method of research practiced in my curatorial thesis project. It will look at the benefits and challenges involved when two contemporary artists, an academic institution (OCAD University) and a museum (Art Gallery of Ontario) work closely together. Not only are the artists and myself as curator collaborating but the Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) is also implicated as a partner in the project.

The NOW service bureau is a DIY – or ‘do-it-yourself’ – agency that offers visitors the opportunity to use the Gallery as a forum for pressing Toronto issues. Relocated from the street, Toronto-based artists Sean Martindale and Pascal Paquette come together in the Gallery to produce a collaborative installation for the Toronto Now series. Using convergent forms of street art, graffiti writing, and activist interventions with contemporary painting, sculpture, and design these artists eradicate traditional art classifications and expand the understanding of what artistic creativity can be. Taking inspiration from their daily environment, the Gallery, and the current socio-political and cultural climate of Toronto, this installation invites audiences to reconsider Toronto Now.

The NOW exhibition is both the object and outcome of my curatorial research. The practice of collaboration results in non-conceptual knowledge and experience typical of artistic research (Borgdorff 2011, 48). The production of knowledge in the form of new ideas, methods, and practices arises from continual dialogue between stakeholders (Lacy 1995, 36). Drawing on ideas discussed by art historian and writer Grant Kester, with support from fields as varied as feminist sociology and design research, collaboration defines my process-based methodology (Kester 2004; Plowman 2003; Wolf 1996; Borgdorff 2011). Kester’s framework of collaborative, dialogical artistic practice translates into a curatorial methodology built on a process of consultation that involves the intersection of diverse perspectives through listening, discussion, and empathy.

Julie Fiala
PhD candidate, Art History, Queen’s University, Kingston
Speaking Silences: The Artist-Researcher as Listener

Drawing from my recent fieldwork as an artist-researcher working in the area of cultural activism and socially-engaged arts in pre-post conflict Belfast, Northern Ireland, I discuss some of my challenges and hopes for an ethical research methodology that develops through the researcher's reflexivity in relation to other voices. What can it mean to do ethically mindful research as politically-accountable artists working in community and social settings if we are prepared to acknowledge that these settings are not governed by the same regulating apparati as our research institutions or universities?

To enter these questions I provide examples from a recent visual arts and research project that was sited within an organisation of political ex-prisoners and their families and where I was both an observer and an involved participant in collective cultural production. I have been interested in the ways that ethical guidelines – such as those of research ethics boards – may not always allow those engaged in human research settings to understand the complexity of intersubjective and collaborative praxes as these pertain to the specificity of work in (artistic) context. I will also present some of the conversational research that I carried out alongside the co-creative production. I discuss how these exchanges are not only valuable for what they say, but for how they say what they say, and for what they do not say.

In so doing, I consider my role as a listening-researcher actively participating in the process of negotiating-meaning through the processes of cultural production, talk, and analysis. I make a distinction between experiential knowledge (developed in praxis with others) and embodied knowledge (that impressed onto the body as it performs art and life). Finally, I introduce the notion of ‘crossing into other worlds,’ which I relate to a distinct set of representational politics that necessarily accounts for the self in representing the other. This is no longer a matter of representing an‘other,’ but of mutual crossings into new territories of self and collective identification.

Natalia Grincheva
PhD candidate, Humanities Doctoral Program, Concordia University
Epistemology of Doing: Conducting Ethnographic Research in Museum Online Communities

This paper is concerned with ethnographic research methodology employed to study online audiences and virtual communities built around museum content on the Internet. The study discusses challenges, ethical implications, and online research opportunities of the methodology based on the epistemology of doing. This method requires not only the complete immersion of a researcher in the virtual life of a museum online community, but also situates a researcher within particular online activities and enables her/him to become an active participant rather than a mere observer. The study illustrates how such a close interaction with online museum communities engages a researcher in the production of culture and subjectivity in a specific context.

The paper seeks to explore whether the epistemology or ontology of doing can give a researcher a more nuanced understanding of online museum visitors – the interests, motivations, and reasoning behind their concrete actions. The study draws on the conceptual framework of the theory of practice (Bourdieu 1972), work on the foundations of virtual communities (Rheingold 1998), and the methodological approaches of online ethnography (Hine 2000). The paper aims to build on findings of recent empirical cyber-ethnographic studies to suggest a new methodological conception for studying museum online communities through the ontology of doing.

Toby Lawrence
MA student, Department of Art History, Visual Art & Theory, University of British Columbia
Reactivating the Triptych: A Study of Ecology in Nicholas and Sheila Pye’s The Coronation

In 2008, the (then) married couple Nicholas and Sheila Pye travelled to Grass, Austria, for a six month artist residency. Drawing from the lush Austrian landscape and an influence of Northern European medieval art, the duo produced The Coronation, a three-panel video installation. Enmeshed with art historical references and prevailing dualities, the Pyes’ work encompasses an uncertain blurring of a fictional relationship with their own. Although the Pyes’ usage of their own bodies as material to illustrate concepts within their work creates an inevitable slippage between factual and fictional, it also produces an interconnected space that prompts us to recognise certain components of human existence often left undiscussed. Through the multi-layering of The Coronation and the slow mesmerising movement of the imagery, I am lured into an introspective space focused on the dichotomies of human and nature, decay and rejuvenation, male and female, and seduction and repulsion.

With the Pyes’ reference to the triptych format and the Adam and Eve imagery of the fifteenth-century Ghent altarpiece by Jan van Eyck, the Edenic narrative of the side panels juxtaposed with the ecological processes of decay and regeneration in the centre panel provides multiple entry points for contemplation. It is through this apposition that I am led to investigate my own positioning and the larger ecological questions surrounding the interconnectedness of humans and nature. Furthermore, in conjunction with the content of the central panel, I see that the tension evoked by the shifting characters of Adam and Eve in The Coronation destabilises the biblical narrative, and it is here that I have found an opening to re-examine the ideological systems that have resulted in the human position that considers itself divorced from its environment.

Joanna Lemon
MA student, Department of Art History, Concordia University
The Wall and the Imaginary: Release from the Boundaries of the Concrete

This site is an unlikely topic except that I discovered this site for myself, by walking down the street. This wall was not unknown, neither to the city, nor to the locals, so my discovery is a wholly personal one, rather than a scientific or historical one. In my investigation, I have returned on several occasions, only to uncover new details that directly impact, or even contradict, what I have already presumed about the site.

An aspect that has arisen from being on the site, is the influence of the imaginary, most likely personified in my highly active imagination, which seems to be at the core of why this site called to me in the first place. It is one thing to look at a photograph and be attracted to what is represented there, and it is another to be arrested on the street by an unusual site (or sight), in that it can have far deeper impact on the psyche of the observer, to have been in that place at that time. It has instilled in me a pervasive curiosity about what was here before: the buildings, the people, the events, the stories of times gone by. It is the imagination of these elements of the site’s history, and the strength of their hold on the observer that highlights the situated-ness of this experience. As a photograph it is an image, but on-site, it is an experience, rendering a deeper connection in the mind of the one receiving the experience; it is the immersive influence of being there.

Lizzie Lloyd

PhD student, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
Why We Need Embodied Art Histories: Picturing Subjective Art Histories through the Reflections in Peter Doig’s Painting

This paper is based on a phenomenologically subjective method of conducting art historical interpretation, drawn out through my viewing of the recurrent theme of reflection in paintings by Peter Doig. The relevance of this methodological approach is demonstrated by close visual analysis through my aesthetic encounter. Serious scholarly subjective responses to art, I will show, reveal vital, though largely undervalued, critical, and interpretative tools, not just in art criticism but art history as well. Our relationship, as art historians, with our objects of study are radically altered by these responses, as our subject (self) and object (art and/or history) become mutually affecting, their separation fundamentally blurred.

My analysis will be conducted through the very medium of ‘ourselves.’ I will allow the composite and serendipitous nature of what makes us who we are define what we, as art historians, make of art. This is characteristic of the paintings I will be looking at. Doig’s art is sustained by an embedded web of familiarity, emotional resonance, and ever reconfigured imagery; it embodies the type of (re-)creative viewership I seek to galvanize more generally. Reflections in a Doig painting therefore come to feel more like echoes, where the idea of ‘self’ becomes ultimately absorbed in landscape and paint, in art and art histories. By restoring the value of paralleled pleasures of art making, viewing, and interpretation, I seek to liberate art from the shackles of objective and positivist explication. This allows for expansive and associational viewing so that the personal aesthetic experience is allowed to precipitate further observation, connections, and discussion.

My travel is generously supported by the University of Bristol Alumni Foundation and the University of Bristol Graduate School of Arts.

Florencia Marchetti

PhD student, Humanities Doctoral Program, Concordia University
Provoking Memories

This presentation is part of an ongoing ethnographic research and documentary art project concerned with mapping and intervening in the historical narratives, practices, and scenarios involved in memorializing the most recent and violent period of dictatorship (1976-1983) in Argentina. Invoking Edward Soja’s call for the historical imagination to look into spatiality with the same depth of vision used to examine durée, the first part of this paper will review key space-based actions in the history of the human rights movement in Argentina: the Mothers of Plaza de Mayo’s occupation of public space in ritualized weekly protests started during the last military dictatorship (1977); two street-art interventions: Siluetas, in the early days of the democratic springtime (colectivo de artistas y activistas, 1983), and Bicicletas, developed during the economic recession that marked the end of the neoliberal reform period (Fernando Traverso, 2001); and finally, the more recent creation of spaces for memory within former clandestine detention sites (Official policy, from 2004 until today). It is within three of these sites that my dissertation project’s interventions will unfold.

One of the most interesting discussions in anthropology today is how experimental art practices can help ethnography move beyond textual modes of knowledge production, paying more attention to the performative and sensorial aspects of human experience. The second part of this presentation will address my own project’s experimental methodology, conceived as situated, performative, and collaborative acts of social analysis that provoke the memories of a diverse pool of social actors, stirring affective forces and bodily sensations, eliciting conversations, and triggering new questions. The proposed approach takes the subversion of object-subject advanced by the performative and feminist critiques of anthropology to heart, reflexively involving all research participants, including myself as artist/researcher, in order to co-create localized and experiential understandings of my country’s troubled history.

Sophie Quick
MA student, Art History Program, University of Western Ontario, London
The Absent Performer: Refusing the Spectator

Using the example of Chris Burden’s White Light/White Heat (1975), this paper explores how long-durational performance challenges and complicates how we conceptualize spectatorship. The performance, staged at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts in New York, consists of a platform built ten feet above the floor and two feet below the ceiling upon which Burden remains hidden for twenty-two days. Burden lay on the platform for the entire time for the duration of the show, without eating or talking or coming down. He did not see anyone and, most importantly, no one saw him. From no angle of the gallery was the spectator able to see him. Informed that Burden was lying upon the platform, but unable to confirm his presence, the spectator could only see the built platform. If Burden cannot be seen, what is the spectator to view and where is the performance located? Is it the unseen space that the spectator is unable to command? This paper will contrast Burden’s extreme invisibility in White Light/White Heat to his blatant visibility in several of his other performances, such as Doomed (1975), Oh, Dracula (1974), and Jaizu (1972). I will also conside Bed Piece (1972), the prequel performance to White Light/White Heat, in which Burden lay in bed in a gallery for twenty-two days. What does Burden accomplish in his invisibility? Does Burden’s absence in White Light/White Heat force us to reconsider how we conceptualize spectatorship? And, ultimately, why does durational absence disrupt how we conceptualize spectatorship and compel us to rethink the relationship between the spectator and performance art?  

This paper is derived from my thesis, which contrasts Chris Burden’s White Light/White Heat with Marina Abramovic’s The House with Ocean View (2002). In particular, the thesis examines the distinction between the visibly present artist and the visibly absent artist. I propose that this distinction marks an important difference – that between an artist refusing the spectator and an artist accommodating the spectator.

Vanessa Rigaux
MA student, Department of Communication Studies, Concordia University
Performing Interface: Autobiography and the Online Artist

What is the connection between 1970s performance artists who used new media and present day amateur practitioners who broadcast themselves in online video performances? Video performances, or, video blogs (vlogs), have much in common with the autobiographical artistic practice of video artists of 40 years ago. Besides the medium of video (tape in the early years and now a digital form) I am drawing on parallels of an autobiographical practice. Thus I am specifically interested in testimonial style videos that frame the body. Revisiting the familiar themes of bodies on video, the YouTube space is a host to a new/old questioning of gender representations. In this way, the act of vlogging could be considered as a reiteration of performance artists’ subjective gaze of the 1970s. More than this, however, the act of performing the self is a re-valuing of the everyday. In relation to theories of performativity, then, how are vlogs performances of the everyday? By examining a range of videos (from the beginnings of video tape to the use of web cams), I am investigating how video testimonials might continue where new media of the 1970s left off, while raising questions about the body today.    

My video practice engages my self as subject in order to fully experience my topic. Through a series of short videos, I am considering an online aesthetic while responding to influential new media works of the 1970s. The process of my autobiographical journey through video questions the popular act of what YouTube represents: the power to “Broadcast Yourself.” Through the act of recording I am commenting on my experiences while posing a series of questions: what is the role of the self and what is the role of the camera, the frame, and the interface? How do these elements connect, collide, and communicate?

Shauna Shiels
PhD student, Cultural Studies Program, Queen’s University, Kingston
Beading as Knowledge Production: Nadia Myre, Ruth Cuthand, and Decolonization

I poured myself a cup of tea and sat beside my 96 year old Nokomis and asked her, “what do you think about beadwork.” To my amazement she responded immediately “wiijiindi wan,” meaning to communicate with or a form of communication. I sat there for the rest of the day listening to her speak Anishnaabemowin and thought about her response. For my grandmother and other Anishnaabe, beads are considered as a kind of text, with each bead being a letter making up a series of invisible yet intelligible words. A completed project tells a story, a multigenerational understanding of the world though an Indigenous world-view.  My Nokomis’ few words resonated with me and became the basis of this paper.

The paper explores Nadia Myre’s 2002 piece Cont(r)act (56 beaded panels of the Indian Act) and  Ruth Cuthand’s 2007-2011 series Dis-ease (20 beaded panels of diseases as seen through a microscope). I consider the works in relation to decolonization, through a grounding in Indigenous feminist discourse, and drawing upon theorists such as Ross (2007), Smith (2002, 2007) and Green (2007), as well as Indigenous methodological theorists Kovach (2010) and Wilson (2008). The presentation considers how these artists’ projects address colonial ideologies and discourses through the medium of beadwork and the ways in which they are seeking to subvert colonial discourses and decolonize Indigenous knowledges and world-views, by (re)instituting beadwork as central to Indigenous knowledge production.

Caroline St-Laurent
Étudiante à la maîtrise en arts visuels et médiatiques, Université du Québec à Montréal
Détournement artistique de la performance sportive dans une pratique de l’installation et de la performance

Le corps performant est au centre de ma pratique en installation, en vidéo et en performance. Ma problématique principale regroupe les notions de dispositif, de spectacle, de discipline, de compétition et de répétition. J’aborde également la quête de la perfection du corps et du mouvement dans des processus d’équilibre et de déséquilibre (physique et psychique). Anciennement gymnaste, j’ai progressivement transposées ces notions dans mon travail. Je travaille actuellement sur le détournement artistique de la performance sportive. Je collabore avec des athlètes professionnels et leurs entraineurs. Je déplace les espaces d’entraînements dans la galerie et confronte les participants à des dispositifs performatifs détournés, tels que les appareils de la gymnastique et les répétitions techniques du sport. En étant à la jonction entre les deux disciplines, je souhaite remettre en question la notion de performance comme spectacle d’excellence.

Dans mon travail, j’envisage la discipline et la recherche de perfection comme des dispositifs. Ma conférence les aborde à travers l’analyse de trois projets: Machine, Relais papillon et Le vélo à écrire. Machine est un dispositif de conférence/performance réalisé avec une sculpture de métal qui porte le corps et qui reproduit mécaniquement un mouvement de la gymnastique. Relais papillon est une performance exécutée par quatre athlètes qui expérimentent un dispositif de nage sur place. Le vélo à écrire détourne l'utilisation du vélo stationnaire en le transformant en machine à écrire. Il fait la conjonction du corps en mouvement (toutefois stationnaire) et l'expression orale/écrite, avec un logiciel qui produit un texte constamment corrigé et recorrigé. Est-ce que ces dispositifs performatifs peuvent activer autrement les principes de la répétition qui sont au cœur de la discipline? Comment informent-ils les processus de recherche, et le résultat?

Angelique Szymanek
PhD candidate, Art History Department, SUNY Binghamton, New York
The Fear of Rape: The Threat of Looking

In 1971 Susan Griffin wrote an article that would come to mark a surge in the already growing awareness of sexual violence in the United States. In this text, “Rape: The All-American Crime,” Griffin writes: “I have never been free from the fear of rape. From a very early age I, like most women, have thought of rape as a part of my natural environment – something to be feared and prayed against like fire or lightening. I never asked why men rape.” The “why” would come to occupy much feminist discourse throughout the decade and it is within this socio-historic moment of awareness, driven by the women’s movement, that my research is situated.

It is also this “why,” and the fear of rape, that drives my relationship to the artwork and artists I study. When I first discovered the performative work of artists such as Suzanne Lacy, Leslie Labowitz, and Ana Mendieta I was moved by the bravery of these women who often used their own bodies as the sites onto which the deeply troubling issue of rape was mapped. Through either empathic ritual or catharsis, as is the case with Lacy and Labowitz, or through the literal recreation of violent tableaux, as with Mendieta, works from this period generated a space for the unspeakable and the hidden. As sites of rage, mourning, empathy, and violence, these works provoke the viewer to address an issue that for many women, including myself, is deeply painful and frightening. It is this constant provocation that draws me to these works personally, while the highly understudied nature of the topic in art history engages me intellectually. As a woman, I feel ever threatened by potential victimization and, as a scholar, I am driven to study work that attends to that threat. My paper will discuss the currents of violence that animate a number of feminist performances from the early 1970s. Called to bear witness to the representations of rape offered, the viewer of these works must consider their own positionality in relation to these victimized bodies – to consider what implications, powers, and/or desires are generated in their having looked.